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  1. Alexandre Bergel, Stéphane Ducasse, and Oscar Nierstrasz. Analyzing Module Diversity. In Journal of Universal Computer Science 11(10) p. 1613—1644, 2005. PDF 

    Each object-oriented programming language proposes various grouping mechanisms to bundle interacting classes (i.e., packages, modules, selector namespaces, etc). To understand such diversity and to compare the different approaches, a common foundation is needed. As far as we are aware of, no major attempt that would go in that direction has been realized. In this paper we present a simple module calculus together with a set of operators for modeling the composition semantics of different grouping mechanisms. Using this module calculus we are able to express the semantics of Java packages, C# namespaces, Ruby modules, selector namespaces, gbeta classes, classboxes, MZScheme units, and MixJuice modules. This calculus supports the identification of system families sharing similar characteristics. In addition it provides a uniform way to represent and analyze fine-grained module semantics.