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  1. Alexandre Bergel and Stéphane Ducasse. Supporting Unanticipated Changes with Traits and Classboxes. In Net.ObjectDays (NODE'05), p. 61—75, Erfurt, Germany, 2005. 

    On the one hand, traits are a powerful way of structuring classes. Traits support the reuse of method collections over several classes. However, traits cannot be used when specifying unanticipated changes to an application. On the other hand, classboxes are a new module system that supports the local redefinition of classes: a collection of classes can be locally extended with variables and/or methods and the existing clients do not get impacted by changes. However, an extension applied to a class by a classbox cannot be reused for other classes. This paper describes how combining Traits and Classboxes supports the safe introduction of crosscutting collaborations: safe because the existing clients of the classes do not get impacted, crosscutting because collaborations between several classes can be put in place in a unanticipated manner. In the resulting system, a collaboration is represented by a classbox and a role by a trait.