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  1. Andrew P. Black, Nathanael Schärli, and Stéphane Ducasse. Applying Traits to the Smalltalk Collection Hierarchy. Technical report IAM-02-007, Institut für Informatik, Universität Bern, Switzerland, 2002. Also available as Technical Report CSE-02-014, OGI School of Science & Engineering, Beaverton, Oregon, USA. 

    Traits are a programming language technology modeled after mixins but avoiding their problems. In this paper we refactor the Smalltalk collections hierarchy using traits. We observed that the original hierarchy contained much duplication of code; traits let us remove all of it. Traits also make possible much more general reuse of collection code outside of the existing hierarchy; for example, they make it easy to convert other collection-like things into true collections. Our refactoring reduced the size of the collection hierarchy by approximately 12 per cent, with no measurable impact on execution efficiency. More importantly, understandability and reusability of the code was significantly improved, and the path was paved for a more intensive refactoring.