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  1. Stéphane Ducasse, Michele Lanza, and Laura Ponisio. Butterflies: A Visual Approach to Characterize Packages. In Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Software Metrics Symposium (METRICS'05), p. 70—77, IEEE Computer Society, 2005. Acceptance rate: 39/89 = 44%. DOI PDF 

    Understanding sets of classes, or packages, is an important activity in the development and reengineering of large object-oriented systems. Packages represent the coarse-grained structure of an application. They are artefacts to deploy and structure software, and therefore more than a simple generalization of classes. The relationships between packages and their contained classes are key in the decomposition of an application and its (re)-modularisation. However, it is difficult to quickly grasp the structure of a package and to understand how a package interacts with the rest of the system. We tackle this problem using butterfly visualizations, i.e. dedicated radar charts built from simple package metrics based on a language-independent meta-model. We illustrate our approach on two applications and show how we can retrieve the relevant characteristics of packages.