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  1. Stéphane Ducasse, Nathanael Schärli, and Roel Wuyts. Uniform and Safe Metaclass Composition. In Journal of Computer Languages, Systems and Structures 31(3-4) p. 143—164, 2005. DOI 

    In pure object-oriented languages, classes are objects, instances of other classes called metaclasses. In the same way as classes define the properties of their instances, metaclasses define the properties of classes. It is therefore very natural to wish to reuse class properties, utilizing them amongst several classes. However this introduced metaclass composition problems, i.e., code fragments applied to one class may break when used on another class due to the inheritance relationship between their respective metaclasses. Numerous approaches have tried to solve metaclass composition problems, but they always resort to an ad-hoc manner of handling conflicting properties, alienating the meta-programmer. We propose a uniform approach that represents class properties as traits, groups of methods that act as a unit of reuse from which classes are composed. Like all the other classes in the system, metaclasses are composed out of traits. This solution supports the reuse of class properties, and their safe and automatic composition based on explicit conflict resolution. The paper discusses traits and our solution, shows concrete examples implemented in the Smalltalk environment Squeak, and compares our approach with existing models for composing class properties.