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  1. Sophie Kaleba, Clément Béra, and Stéphane Ducasse. Assessing primitives performance on multi-stage execution. In International Workshop on Smalltalk Technology IWST'18, 2018. URL 

    Virtual machines, besides the interpreter and just-in-time compiler optimization facilities, also include a set of primitive operations that the client language can use. Some of these are essential and cannot be performed in any other way. Others are optional: they can be expressed in the client language but are often implemented in the virtual machine to improve performance when the just-in-time compiler is unable to do so (start-up performance, speculative optimizations not implemented or not mature enough, etc.). In a hybrid runtime, where code is executed by an interpreter and a just-in-time compiler, the implementor can choose to implement optional primitives in the client language , in the virtual machine implementation language (typically C or C++), or on top of the just-in-time compiler back-end. This raises the question of the maintenance and performance trade-offs of the different alternatives. As a case study, we implemented the String comparison optional primitive in each case. This paper describes the different implementations , discusses the maintenance cost of each of them and evaluates for different string sizes the execution time in Cog, a Smalltalk virtual machine.