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  1. Guillermo Polito, Stéphane Ducasse, and Luc Fabresse. First-Class Undefined Classes for Pharo. In Proceedings of the 12th Edition of the International Workshop on Smalltalk Technologies, IWST '17 p. 9:1—9:8, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. DOI URL 

    Loading code inside a Pharo image is a daily concern for a Pharo developer. Nevertheless, several problems may arise at loading time that can prevent the code to load or even worse let the system in an inconsistent state. In this paper, we focus on the problem of loading code that references a class that does not exist in the system. We discuss the different flavors of this problem, the limitations of the existing Undeclared mechanism and the heterogeneity of Pharo tools to solve it. Then, we propose an unified solution for Pharo that reifies Undefined Classes. Our model of Undefined Classes is the result of an objective selection among different alternatives. We then validate our solution through two cases studies: migrating old code and loading code with circular dependencies. This paper also presents the integration of this solution into Pharo regarding the needed Meta-Object Protocol for Undefined Classes and the required modifications of existing tools.