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  1. Nathanael Schärli, Stéphane Ducasse, and Oscar Nierstrasz. Classes = Traits + States + Glue (Beyond mixins and multiple inheritance). In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Inheritance, 2002. PDF 
    Abstract

    We present a simple, component-based model of mixins, called traits, and argue that this simple model sidesteps many of the practical problems with other approaches to mixins and multiple inheritance. With our model, classes are built from a set of traits by specifying glue code that connects them together and accesses the necessary state. We briefly discuss practical experience with an implementation of traits for Squeak, and we list a number of open questions for discussion.